Hysteresis effects of the direction of mechanical stimulation on the cell behavior have been examined in vitro. A micro ridge pattern was made on the surface of the scaffold to align the directions of the cells being stimulated. The stripe pattern (0.7 μm heigh, 3 μm wide, and 3 μm interval) was created by the photolithography technique. Three regions, which have the uniform value of the angle between the longitudinal direction of the ridge and the direction of the tangential force, were set: 0, 45, and 90 degrees in each region. Myoblasts (C2C12: mouse myoblast cell line) were used in the experiment. The scaffold plate with cells was set in the tube of a conventional centrifuge placed in an incubator to apply the tangential force field to each cell. After the cell culture for 5 hours with centrifugation, the behavior of each cell was analyzed on time-lapse microscopic images for 10 hours. Experimental results show that cell activities (migration and deformation) are enhanced after stimulation of tangential forces perpendicular to the long axis of myoblasts.

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