This the second part of a two-part paper focusing on the flow instabilities of low-specific pump turbines. In this part, results of the flow control application with fluid injection (using both water and air) in the vaneless space in order to suppress the flow instabilities of a low specific speed model pump-turbine in turbine mode operation at HSLU (Lucerne University of Applied Sciences) Switzerland are presented.
Based on the analysis of the experimental data, flow visualization, and CFD results focusing especially on the flow features in the vaneless space and at the runner inlet, the onset and development of the flow instabilities are explored as presented in the first part of this paper. Based on these analyses, the flow control technology by injecting air and water as well as suction of the fluid in the vaneless space of the model pump-turbine is implemented for suppressing the flow instabilities and thus extending the operating range of the pump-turbine. Both air- and water-injection are applied by using an external energy source (compressor and pump) and discrete nozzles circumferentially distributed in the vaneless space. The S-shaped pump-turbine characteristics in turbine operating mode are modified so that the slope at speed no load conditions is no more positive meaning an improvement in the stability behavior. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful application of flow control with fluid injection in the vaneless space of pump-turbines. Fluid injection is applied at two different guide vane openings, i.e. at 6° and 18°. The analysis of the unsteady pressure data indicates the suppression of flow instability such as rotating stall with fluid injection in the vaneless space. The water injection is more effective than the air injection for modifying the slope of the pump-turbine characteristics.