Abstract

In Romania, in the last decades, was not realized any complex plan of management concerning the environmental rehabilitation of the natural riverbeds, even if there are even in present many places confronted with repeated floods. After the floods from 2004, 2005 and 2014 have been recorded in some places large deposits of sediments or contrary, in other zones with erosion and uncontrolled coastal slides. As an immediate effect, zones with risk for the local population and not only, have appeared. The present paper estimates the capacity of transport for a riverbed in natural conditions, based on the local measurements registered before and after a flood. The model is tested for a tributary of the Bistrita River, the Cracau River, near the Siret basin, an area well-known for such repeated floods sometimes even two or three recorded in the same year, as it was in 2005 and 2008. Three of these floods were confronted with human losses, many dead animals, and agricultural flooded areas. Near the analyzed watercourse there are many localities, with a high density of population. The realized numerical model for the flow with free surface was taking into account the possibility of the permanent changing of the lateral surfaces (riverbeds) during the floods. A continuous balance of the entered and transported sediments is realized, due to the erosion and sediment transportation. The time variation of the discharged liquid and the solid phases are directly connected with the sediment transport. In these conditions, the fine fractions of sediments from the bed’s structure are removed from its surface. In some places, the sediments become “armored” with the coarser part of the bed sediment. It is proposed a mathematical model to simulate the effect of both types of deposits into a fluid flow in open channels, with a movable bed. The entire alluvial stream, until the base rock, is considered with a small thickness so the non-uniformity of the grain size in the vertical distribution in riverbed could be neglected. The boundary conditions in the flood analysis consist of the upstream hydrograph and the stationary level of the downstream watercourse. Knowing the flow rate and the water levels by direct measurements, there is possible to establish the risk zones, far away from the river borders. The primary purpose of this study is to minimize the effects of such uncontrolled floods by determining the risk zones and to present a solution for increasing population safety which lives near the riverbed. Finally, some conclusions and references are mentioned.

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