For well over 150 years now, theoreticians and practitioners have been developing and teaching students easily visualized models of fluid behavior that distinguish between the laminar and turbulent fluid regimes. Because of an emphasis on applications, perhaps insufficient attention has been paid to actually understanding the mechanisms by which fluids transition between these regimes. Summarized in this paper is the product of four decades of research into the sources of these mechanisms, at least one of which is a direct consequence of the non-linear terms of the Navier-Stokes equation. A scheme utilizing chaotic dynamic effects that become dominant only for sufficiently high Reynolds numbers is explored. This paper is designed to be of interest to faculty in the engineering, chemistry, physics, biology and mathematics disciplines as well as to practitioners in these and related applications.

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