It is known that in large vessels (whole) blood behaves as a Navier-Stokes (Newtonian) fluid; however, in a vessel whose characteristic dimension (e.g., a diameter in the range of 20 to 500 microns) is about the same size as the characteristic size of the blood cells, blood behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid, exhibiting complex phenomena, such as shear-thinning, stress relaxation, the Fahraeus effect, the plasma-skimming, etc.. Using the framework of mixture theory an Eulerian-Eulerian two phase model is applied to model blood flow, where the plasma is treated as Newtonian fluid and the RBCs are treated as shear thinning fluid.[5]

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