Numerical results depicting the effects of diffusers on confined isothermal high-swirl jets are presented. The aim is analyze the mixing between a non-swirling inner jet (natural gas) and a swirling annular jet (primary air). This simple setup is widely used in burners to promote stabilized flames of lean mixtures.
Flow patterns for sudden-expansion and diffusers are contrasted for swirl number of 1 and expansion area ratio of 4 in a transitional turbulence regime. Diffusers have important influence on size and location of recirculation zones. Hence knowledge of flow characteristics is a prerequisite in the design process. The criteria to establish the optimum diffuser would be better mixing as well as minimum residence time in the recirculation zones to prevent the formation of NOx in the future burner. The dissipated mechanical energy is not important in burner applications.