The ultimate goal of the present study is to determine whether investigations of flow patterns (flow reversal and flow branching) and mechanical factors (wall shear stress and normal stress) have a role in local risk factors and if flow modeling can truly rely on surrogate geometric sites (simplified geometries). Cardiovascular disease is considered to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality across the world and improved methods of disease management are desperately needed. One of the main forms of cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis. The presence of atherosclerotic plaques has been shown to be closely related to arterial vessel geometry and hemodynamic flow patterns. Computational fluid dynamic simulations were performed on 3 carotid bifurcation arteries to demonstrate that hemodynamic factors are significant determinants for the development of vascular pathology. Relationships between disturbed flow and various geometric factors from rest-state and exercise were examined. Wall shear stress, normal stress, and vorticity were used to verify the role of age, gender, and geometry on hemodynamic flow patterns.

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