An experimental study was conducted to investigate the interferences of wind turbines sited over hilly terrains in order to elucidate underlying physics to explore/optimize design paradigms of wind turbines sited over complex terrains for higher power yield and better durability. The experiments were conducted in a large wind tunnel with of wind turbine models sited over a flat terrain (baseline case) and a 2D-ridge with non-homogenous atmospheric boundary layer winds. In addition to measuring dynamic wind loads (both forces and moments) and the power outputs of the wind turbine models, a high-resolution digital Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to conduct detailed flow field measurements to quantify the flow characteristics of the surface winds and wake interferences among multiple wind turbines over flat (baseline case) and complex terrains. The detailed flow field measurements were correlated with the wind load measurements and power outputs of the wind turbine models to elucidate the underlying physics associated with turbine power generation and fatigue loads acting on the wind turbines.

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