A series of high resolution planar particle image velocimetry measurements performed in a waterjet pump rotor reveal the inner structure of the tip leakage vortex (TLV) which dominates the entire flow field in the tip region. Turbulence generated by interactions among the TLV, the shear layer that develops as the backward leakage flow emerges from the tip clearance as a “wall jet”, the passage flow, and the endwall is highly inhomogeneous and anisotropic. We examine this turbulence in both RANS and LES modelling contexts. Spatially non-uniform distributions of Reynolds stress components are explained in terms of the local mean strain field and associated turbulence production. Characteristic length scales are also inferred from spectral analysis. Spatial filtering of instantaneous data enables the calculation of subgrid scale (SGS) stresses, along with the SGS energy flux (dissipation). The data show that the SGS energy flux differs from the turbulence production rate both in trends and magnitude. The latter is dominated by energy flux from the mean flow to the large scale turbulence, which is resolved in LES, whereas the former is dominated by energy flux from the mean flow to the SGS turbulence. The SGS dissipation rate is also used for calculating the static and dynamic Smagorinsky coefficients, the latter involving filtering at multiple scales; both vary substantially in the tip region, and neither is equal to values obtained in isotropic turbulence.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.