The purpose of the present study is to improve the current prediction capabilities of the entrainment fraction in horizontal gas-liquid flow. Since it is recognized that waves at the gas-liquid interface are the main source of entrainment, an experimental and theoretical work has been carried out to characterize the waves at the gas-liquid interface and to develop a model for entrainment calculations based on such characteristics. The model consists of three sub-models, namely, onset of entrainment, maximum entrainment and entrainment values in between. The onset of entrainment model determines the conditions at which the gas starts shearing the wave crests through a force balance between drag and surface tension forces. The maximum entrainment model provides the maximum fraction of liquid that can be entrained at high gas velocities by integration of the turbulent velocity profile to a determined dimensionless film thickness within the buffer sub layer. The entrainment fraction in between onset and maximum boundaries is calculated from an equilibrium between atomization and deposition rates. The atomization rate is calculated by first determining the wave mass flux in the liquid film and second by calculating the fraction of a single wave that is sheared by the gas through a force balance. The deposition rate is calculated as a linear function of the droplet concentration in the gas. Closure relationships have been developed from data for wave celerity, frequency, amplitude and width which are used in the entrainment model. A review of the most used correlations for calculating the entrainment fraction is presented and their performance evaluated. The present model shows better prediction than available models when compared to the acquired experimental data and the available experimental data in the literature.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.