In order to simulate the motion of bubbles, drops, and particles, it is often important to consider finite Reynolds number effects on drag, lift, torque and history force. Herein, an equation of motion is developed for spherical particles with a no-slip surface based on theoretical analysis, experimental data and surface-resolved simulations. The equation of motion is then extended to account for finite particle size. This extension is critical for particles which will have a size significantly larger than the grid cell size, particularly important for bubbles and low-density particles. The extension to finite particle size is accomplished through spatial-averaging (both volume-based and surface-based) of the continuous flow properties. This averaging is consistent with the Faxen limit for solid spheres at small Reynolds numbers and added mass and fluid stress forces at inviscid limits. The finite Rep corrections are shown to have good agreements with experiments and resolved-surface simulations. The finite size corrections are generally fourth-order accurate and an order of magnitude more accurate than point-force expressions (which neglect quadratic and higher spatial gradients) for particles with size on the order of the gradient length-scales. However, further work is needed for more quantitative assessment of the truncation terms and the overall model robustness and accuracy in complex flows.
An Equation of Motion for Particles of Finite Reynolds Number and Finite Size
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Loth, E, & Dorgan, AJ. "An Equation of Motion for Particles of Finite Reynolds Number and Finite Size." Proceedings of the ASME 2009 Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting. Volume 1: Symposia, Parts A, B and C. Vail, Colorado, USA. August 2–6, 2009. pp. 1069-1082. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/FEDSM2009-78212
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