One-way surge tank is an important measure of water hammer protection in long water supply engineering. It can control the negative pressure efficiently and prevent pipeline from column separation. Setting one-way surge tank in proper place along pipeline is relative to the safety of long water supply engineering. Principle of Setting one-way surge tank is made through theoretical analysis detailedly. It is obviously that result of theoretical analysis is conservative because attenuation of water hammer is ignored, but theoretical analysis provide an proper approach for setting one-way surge tank. Based on result of theoretical analysis, optimization setting is obtained through numerical simulation.

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