To simulate multi-scale free surfaces, we developed a hybrid particle/grid method by which the free surfaces within sub-grid regions are simulated by the particle method, and other regions are simulated with the grid method. The particle method uses two types of particles to model gas and liquid fluids in order to simulate the interaction between them. We tested the new method on fragmentation of a water column, and the predicted configurations of the water column are consistent with measurements of Koshizuka and Oka. We also simulated the fuel spray near the outlet of an automobile-engine fuel injector and found that this method qualitatively simulated the breakup of the liquid film.
Simulation of Liquid Jet Breakup of a Swirl-Type Fuel Injector for Automobile Engines
Ishii, E, Ishikawa, T, & Tanabe, Y. "Simulation of Liquid Jet Breakup of a Swirl-Type Fuel Injector for Automobile Engines." Proceedings of the ASME/JSME 2007 5th Joint Fluids Engineering Conference. Volume 1: Symposia, Parts A and B. San Diego, California, USA. July 30–August 2, 2007. pp. 1899-1907. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/FEDSM2007-37010
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