We present a framework which can be used to rigorously assess and compare large-eddy simulation methods. We apply this to LES of homogeneous isotropic turbulence using a Smagorin-sky model and three different discretizations. By systematically varying the simulation resolution and the Smagorinsky coefficient, one can determine parameter regions for which one, two or multiple flow predictions are simultaneously predicted with approximately minimal error. To this end errors on the predicted longitudinal integral length scale, the resolved kinetic energy and the resolved enstrophy are considered. Parameter regions where all considered errors are simultaneously (nearly) minimal are entitled ‘multi-objective optimal’ parameter regions. Surprisingly, we find that a standard second-order method has a larger ‘multi-objective optimal’ parameter region than two considered fourth order methods. Moreover, the errors in the respective ‘multi-objective optimal’ regions are also lowest for the second-order scheme.

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