The skin friction for a turbulent boundary layer can be measured and calculated in several ways with varying degrees of accuracy. In particular, the methods of the velocity gradient at the wall, the integrated boundary layer equation and the momentum integral equation are evaluated for both smooth and rough surface boundary layers. These methods are compared to the oil film interferometry technique measurements for the case of smooth surface flows. The integrated boundary layer equation is found to be relatively reliable, and the values computed with this technique are used to investigate the effect of increasing external favorable pressure gradient for both smooth and rough surfaces, and increasing roughness parameter for the rough surfaces.
Smooth and Rough Turbulent Boundary Layers: A Look at Skin Friction, Pressure Gradient and Roughness
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Newhall, KA, Cal, RB, Brzek, B, Johansson, G, & Castillo, L. "Smooth and Rough Turbulent Boundary Layers: A Look at Skin Friction, Pressure Gradient and Roughness." Proceedings of the ASME 2006 2nd Joint U.S.-European Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting Collocated With the 14th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering. Volume 2: Fora. Miami, Florida, USA. July 17–20, 2006. pp. 1013-1021. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/FEDSM2006-98517
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