Knowledge of the flow phenomena inside the cylinder is necessary for optimum design of the intake port and the piston cavity configurations. Recent trends in direct injection diesel engines have increased the need for clear understanding of the flow field, especially the swirl characteristics. The swirl flow is an essential parameter which affects the air fuel mixing, combustion efficiency and therefore the engine performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the combustion, emission, spray and flow field phenomena of a D I diesel engine and to come up with a geometrical shape for a port and valve or valves that produce the optimum swirl ratio. The percentage opening of a helical port for the DI diesel engine is simulated and studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics with experimental validation. Steady flow rig experiments are most widely used to evaluate the swirl ratio of an intake port design. The three dimensional developing flow patterns are needed throughout the compression and combustion stroke to understand the various experimental results. Flow is simulated by solving governing equations, viz., conservation of mass and momentum using the simple-algorithm. Turbulence has been modeled by standard kφ–φ∈ model with standard wall treatment. The predictive accuracy of the calculation method is compared with detailed mass flow rate and paddle rpm measurements. The results are in good agreement with experimental results and clearly predict the under predictability of the paddle swirl meter in lower lifts. Emission standards, which demand large reduction in NOx and PM emission, require a more comprehensive study of all elements that contribute to emission formulation. The combustion chamber is subject of research and development in an effort to achieve optimized combustion system. The intake port fluid dynamics contribute to the fuel air mixing which in turn is the most important parameter for the control of fuel burning rate for diesel engines. The intake port fluid dynamics also significantly affects ignition delay, the magnitude and timing of the diffusion burn, the magnitude of the premixed burn and emission of nitrous oxide and soot. According to the Modulated Kinetics (MK) concept, which improves the emission performance of diesel engines, a D I Diesel engine requires higher intake swirl in the part-load region. The computations are used to optimize the swirl flow characteristics of an intake port system over a wide range of operating conditions. In this study, the numerical simulation of the helical intake port and variable swirl intake port for two-valve DI Diesel engines are discussed with experimental validation. The improvement of swirl generation capacity of the port design according to the stringent emission norms are also studied.

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