Gas-liquid, gas-solid, liquid-solid, and gas-liquid-solid multiphase flows are difficult to visualize, characterize, and quantify because the systems are typically opaque. Invasive or noninvasive measurement methods are typically used for determining internal flow and transport characteristics of these complex flows. The difficulty with invasive methods is that they can alter the internal flow of a multiphase system causing interference with realistic process measurements. X-ray imaging provides one family of noninvasive measurement techniques used extensively for product testing and evaluation of static objects with complex structures. These techniques have been extended to visualize dynamic systems, such as those which characterize multiphase flows. This paper will describe a new X-ray flow visualization facility for large-scale multiphase flows. X-ray radiography and X-ray computed tomography of static and dynamic systems will be used to demonstrate system capabilities. Radiographic images will show bread dough rising, objects falling in a liquid, large bubbles rising in a 32 cm ID column of water, and operation of a 32 cm ID bubble column. X-ray computed tomography of a large static object will demonstrate visualization capabilities. X-ray computed tomography of a multiphase flow in a 32 cm bubble column will show local time-averaged gas holdup values for various operating conditions. Finally, challenges associated with X-ray stereographic imaging to capture time-resolved dynamic events will be outlined.

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