For interface-tracking simulation of two-phase flows, we propose a new computational method, NS-PFM, combining Navier-Stokes (NS) equations with phase-field model (PFM). Based on the free energy theory, PFM describes an interface as a volumetric zone across which physical properties vary continuously. Surface tension is defined as an excessive free energy per unit area induced by density gradient. Consequently, PFM simplifies the interface-tracking procedure by use of a standard technique. The proposed NS-PFM was applied to several problems of incompressible, isothermal two-phase flow with the same density ratio as that of an air-water system. In this method, the Cahn-Hilliard (CH) equation was used for predicting interface configuration. It was confirmed through numerical simulations that (1) the flux driven by chemical potential gradient in the CH equation plays an important role in interfacial advection and reconstruction, (2) the NS-PFM gives good predictions for pressure increase inside a bubble caused by the surface tension, (3) coalescence of liquid film and single drop falling through a stagnant gas was well simulated, and (4) collapse of liquid column under gravity was predicted in good agreement with other available data. Then, another version of NS-PFM was proposed and applied to a direct simulation of bubble nucleation of a non-ideal fluid in the vicinity of the critical point, which demonstrated the capability of NS-PFM to capture liquid-vapor interface motion in boiling and condensation.
A Phase-Field Method for Interface-Tracking Simulation of Two-Phase Flows
Takada, N, Misawa, M, & Tomiyama, A. "A Phase-Field Method for Interface-Tracking Simulation of Two-Phase Flows." Proceedings of the ASME 2005 Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting. Volume 2: Fora. Houston, Texas, USA. June 19–23, 2005. pp. 259-264. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/FEDSM2005-77367
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