The atomization process is essentially one in which bulk liquid is converted into small drops. Basically, it can be considered as a disruption of the consolidating influence of surface tension by the action of internal and external forces. In the absence of such disruptive forces, surface tension tends to pull the liquid into the form of a sphere, since this has the minimum surface energy. Liquid viscosity exerts a stabilizing influence by opposing any change in system geometry. On the other end, aerodynamic forces acting on the liquid surface may promote the disruption process by applying an external distortion force to the bulk liquid. Breakup occurs when the magnitude of the disruptive force just exceeds the consolidating surface tension force. In twin fluid atomizers of the air-blast type and air assist type, atomization and spray dispersion tend to be dominated by air momentum forces, with hydrodynamic processes playing only a secondary role. With pressure swirl nozzles, the internal flow characteristics are of primary importance, because they govern the thickness and uniformity of the annular liquid film formed in the final discharge orifice as well as the relative magnitude of the axial and tangential components of velocity of this film. It is therefore of great practical interest to examine the interrelationships that exist between internal flow characteristics, nozzle design variables, and important spray features such as cone angle and mean drop size. The various equations that have been derived for nozzle discharge coefficient are discussed because this coefficient not only affects the flow rate of any given nozzle but also can be used to calculate its velocity coefficients and spray cone angle. Consideration is also given to the complex flow situations that arise on the surface of a rotating cup or disk. These flow characteristics are of basic importance to the successful operation of atomizers, because they exercise a controlling influence on the nature of the atomization process, the quality of atomization, and distribution of drop sizes in the spray. For plain orifice atomizers, the key geometrical variables are the orifice length and diameter. Final orifice diameter is of prime importance for pressure swirl atomizers. The absence of any theoretical treatment of the atomization process has led to the evolution of empirical equations to express the relationship between the mean drop size in a spray and the variable liquid properties. This paper includes the study of different parameters that affect the flow in plain orifice and pressure swirl atomizers. The paper also includes the performance characteristics of plain orifice and pressure swirl atomizers.

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