The effect of surface roughness on the aerodynamic performance of a blade and an airfoil is one of very important issues in aeronautic and mechanical engineering. Since existing turbulence models were developed for uniformly distributed roughness, the availability would be limited under a certain flow and roughness conditions. Considering a blade surface with ice accretion, foreign object damage and erosion, the roughness is not uniformly distributed, but isolated or local. Therefore, in such a multi-physics simulation, it is needed to develop a more universal turbulence model to predict the flow fields around a blade with various types of surface roughness. In the present study, employing the virtual force that represents the effect of each roughness element on the mean flow field, I develop and verify a new k–ε turbulence model that can be successfully applied to both k- and d-type roughness.

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