Transient analyses provide estimates of maximum pressure in the Great Falls Unit 1 penstock following load rejection. Additional transient analyses, along with hydrodynamic force and moment coefficients, provide estimates of unsteady loads on the Unit 1 emergency butterfly valve during closure. Position varying force and moment coefficients for a butterfly valve were determined by CFD modeling. A new method for representing turbine and pump-turbine characteristics that involves a slight modification to the standard Suter representation permits linear interpolation between the discrete curves representing data at different wicket gate openings.

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