The global trend in chemical and manufacturing industries is towards improved energy efficiency, cleaner synthesis, reduced environmental impact and smaller, safer, multifunctional process plants. Such concerns are the driving force for the intensification of batch processes, which are being replaced with continuous high-intensity in-line mass- and heat-transfer equipment. In this context the process intensification (PI) approach, in which the fluid dynamics of the process is matched to the reaction in order to improve selectivity and minimize the byproducts, takes on particular importance.

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