Manufacturing applications for filled polymers include encapsulation of microelectronics and injection molding of composite parts. Predictive tools for simulating these manufacturing processes require knowledge of time- and temperature-dependent rheology of the polymer as well as information about local particle concentration. The overall system rheology is highly dependent on the particle concentration. The local particle concentration can change due to gravity, convection and shear-induced migration. For the epoxy systems of interest, an extent of reaction can be used to track the degree of cure. We couple the curing model with a diffusive flux suspension model [Zhang and Acrivos 1994] to determine the particle migration. This results in a generalized Newtonian model that has viscosity as a function of temperature, cure and concentration. Using this model, we examine settling of the particulate phase in both flowing and quiescent curing systems. We focus on settling in molds and flow in wide-gap counter-rotating cylinders. The heat transfer, including the exothermic polymerization reaction, must be modeled to achieve accurate results. The model is validated with temperature measurements and post-test microscopy data. Particle concentration is determined with x-ray microfocus visualization or confocal microscopy. Agreement between the simulations and experimental results is fair.
Migration and Settling of Particulates in Filled Epoxies
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Mondy, L, Rao, R, Lindgren, E, Sun, A, Lagasse, R, & Thompson, K. "Migration and Settling of Particulates in Filled Epoxies." Proceedings of the ASME/JSME 2003 4th Joint Fluids Summer Engineering Conference. Volume 1: Fora, Parts A, B, C, and D. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. July 6–10, 2003. pp. 2463-2471. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/FEDSM2003-45780
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