Previous studies dealing with sprays have used a variety of techniques to determine spray droplets and spray penetration. In particular, the sedimentation tower method and the liquid immersion sampling technique were most popular. However, in these techniques sampling is done after spray formation is complete. The completion time of spray formation appears to vary with the conditions of injection and ambient factors, thus making measurements under transient conditions during injection difficult. A pulsed Malvern drop-size analyzer, based on Fraunhofer diffraction, was utilized to determine spray penetrations of diesel fuels under different conditions of injection, along with the effects of fuel properties. In these study, the spray is formed by injecting a calibrated amount of fuel into air. A two mm diameter collimated beam illuminated a cylindrical volume perpendicular to the axis of the fuel spray, and its attenuation was recorded and stored on the oscilloscope. With the optical measurement being synchronized to the needle lift of the injector, the output of the needle lift transducer and the optical signal was recorded simultaneously. Thus, the arrival and the duration of the spray at various positions along its axis were measured. A spray penetration correlation is obtained, and is compared to other existing correlations in the literature.

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