Turbulent wedges induced by a 3D surface roughness placed in a laminar boundary layer over a flat plate were visualised for the first time using both shear-sensitive and temperature-sensitive liquid crystals. The experiments were carried out at three different levels of favourable pressure gradients. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the spreading angles of the turbulent wedges indicated by their associated surface shear stresses and heat transfer characteristics and hence obtain further insight about the difference in the behaviour of transitional momentum and thermal boundary layers when a streamwise pressure gradient exists. It was shown that under a zero pressure gradient the spreading angles indicated by the two types of liquid crystals are the same, but the difference increases as the level of favourable pressure gradient increases. The result from the present study could have an important implication to the transition modelling of thermal boundary layers over gas turbine blades.

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