Nowadays, pumped-storage power stations require high flexibility and reliability in operation under off-design conditions, especially in the pump mode. When a pump-turbine operates under various part load conditions in pump mode, highly dynamic phenomenon such as stationary vortex and rotating stall occur. Therefore, the performance characteristics in pump mode are vital for the safe and effective operation. A number of studies have been conducted to investigate the flow characteristics in turbine or pump mode under different GVOs through numerical simulations. However, the studies about influence of the position of interface and interface condition on the pump characteristics of pump-turbines are not completely clear.

In this paper, the three-dimensional steady and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations were solved for a detailed analysis of the influence of interface conditions with various guide vane opening conditions in pump mode. To ensure the reliability of the numerical analysis, the numerical results were validated in comparison with the experimental data.

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