In this paper, the effect of wing aspect ratio and kinematics on wing-wake interaction at Re∼104, which matched the flight regime of flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV), was investigated. The dynamically scaled-up robotic model submerged in a water tank environment revealed that the wing-wake interaction augmented lift across a decrease in both aspect ratio and wing pitching duration. At such high Re, a time-course digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) measurement showed the entire flow was strongly dominated by trailing-edge vortices (TEV). A pair of counter-rotating TEV was found to induce a jetlike flow towards the windward side of the wing at stroke reversal. The transfer of momentum from the accelerated flow to the wing caused the enhanced lift. The size of the pair vortex decreased for an increase in both aspect ratio and wing pitching duration. The size of the TEV pair was the key feature found to generate the observed aerodynamic force characteristics.

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