In order to improve the fuel efficiency of heavy vehicles, flow control devices aiming at aerodynamic drag reduction are often utilized. Computational simulation has been widely used in the investigation of fluid dynamics associated with aerodynamic drag over a heavy vehicle and control effects of many drag reduction devices. Most previous studies were, however, conducted using computational techniques based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and with rather simplified geometries (i.e., GTS, GCM, and Ahmed body), and therefore, the utility of the understanding of the drag-producing flow physics is often impractical and limited.

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