We developed a direct numerical simulation (DNS) method of solid-fluid two-phase flows to study the effects of heat conductivity within a solid particle and the particle motion on the heat transfer. Heat transfer and particle behaviors were studied for different ratios of heat conductivity (solid to liquid) and solid volume fractions. The simulation results emphasize the effect of temperature distributions within the particles, and the heat transfer through each particle plays an important role for the motion of the particulate flow. The particle-laden flow in a two-dimensional channel of instable thermal stratification, namely hot wall at the bottom and cold wall at the top, is simulated. In the two-dimensional computation, the heat transfer attenuates by increasing the neutral conductive particles because of the resistance to the thermal convection. In case of highly conductive particles, the thermal convection and conductions are enhanced to some extent of addition but the overload of particles suddenly reduces the intensity of convection, resulting in the lower heat transfer. The inverse gradient of mean temperature is observed particularly in case of moderate loading of neutral conductive particles. It is due to the modulation of the profile of convection cells. Most of the above-mentioned findings are reproduced by the fully three-dimensional simulation.

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