Given the innumerable combinations of flight vehicles, loads and flight conditions, alternatives are sought to flight testing, to certify the safe flight speed with slung loads. With well-resolved airload maps now feasible for arbitrary shapes as analytical functions, dynamic simulation predicts divergence speeds, regardless of the symmetry of the object. Likely modes of amplification are found using wind tunnel experiments with free-swinging objects. A robust control formulation enables safe flight close to divergence speed where the flight control system can prevent disturbance amplification.

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