We have developed two types of devices—vertical and parallel—for incorporating a microfluidic channel into a gating nanopore. The vertical device consists of a single nanogap electrode with a nanopore perpendicular to the surface of a silicon substrate. The parallel device is similar, except the nanopore is parallel to the surface of the substrate. Furthermore, while the vertical device was fabricated using nanofabrication technologies, the parallel device was fabricated using a mechanically controllable break junction that enables atomic-level control of the electrode gap; hence, measurement of single atoms and molecules is possible. Both devices can identify single gold nanoparticles passing through them by measuring the strength of their electrical signals. The parallel device can also identify the individual nucleotides in a DNA molecule.

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