X-ray imaging, as a noninvasive flow visualization technique, has been shown to be a useful method for observing and characterizing multiphase flows. One type of X-ray flow visualization technique, called X-ray Particle Tracking Velocimetry (XPTV), tracks an X-ray attenuating particle in an opaque fluid flow. A significant challenge with XPTV is identifying tracer particles with the desired fluid flow characteristics (e.g., small and neutrally buoyant) but yet differentially attenuate X-rays, which is based primarily on density differences. This paper describes the manufacturing of XPTV tracer particles that satisfy specific particle characteristics including high X-ray attenuation, uniform shape, specified effective density, and desired diameter. An example use of these particles as an intruder particle in a fluidized bed (to simulate biomass injection) is then demonstrated using X-ray stereographic imaging to determine intruder particle position as a function of time in a three-dimensional opaque system.
- Fluids Engineering Division
Developing Tracer Particles for X-Ray Particle Tracking Velocimetry
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Drake, JB, Kenney, AL, Morgan, TB, & Heindel, TJ. "Developing Tracer Particles for X-Ray Particle Tracking Velocimetry." Proceedings of the ASME-JSME-KSME 2011 Joint Fluids Engineering Conference. ASME-JSME-KSME 2011 Joint Fluids Engineering Conference: Volume 1, Symposia – Parts A, B, C, and D. Hamamatsu, Japan. July 24–29, 2011. pp. 2685-2692. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/AJK2011-11009
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