This paper addresses the error in large-eddy simulation with wall-modeling (i.e., when the wall shear stress is modeled and the viscous near-wall layer is not resolved): the error in estimating the wall shear stress from a given outer-layer velocity field using auxiliary near-wall RANS equations where convection is not neglected. By considering the behavior of turbulence length scales near a wall, the cause of the errors is diagnosed and solutions that remove the errors are proposed based solidly on physical reasoning. The resulting method is shown to accurately predict equilibrium boundary layers at very high Reynolds number, with both realistic instantaneous fields (without overly elongated unphysical near-wall structures) and accurate statistics (both skin friction and turbulence quantities).

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