Hydration and carbonation tests confirm that SESI technology using sonic energy promotes the effective hydration of FBC solids; 70–80% CaO conversion to Ca(OH)2 was easily achievable in a few minutes. In addition, the 75 kW sonic generator, with addition of the grinding medium, was able to produce a highly carbonated residue which could serve as an effective sulphur sorbent or could be landfilled without the current undesirable side reactions such as ettringite production, due to the effective elimination of CaO and Ca(OH)2 in the ash. Over 70% conversion to CaCO3 was achieved in samples that were processed for only 5 min.

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