The main objective of this study was to investigate the load change capability and effect of the individual control variables, such as fuel, primary air and secondary air flow rates, on the dynamics of large-scale CFB boilers. The dynamics of the CFB process were examined by dynamic process tests and by simulation studies. A multi-faceted set of transient process tests were performed at a commercial 235 MWe CFB unit. Fuel reactivity and interaction between gas flow rates, solid concentration profiles and heat transfer were studied by step changes of the following controllable variables: fuel feed rate, primary air flow rate, secondary air flow rate and primary to secondary air flow ratio. Load change performance was tested using two different types of tests: open and closed loop load changes. A tailored dynamic simulator for the CFB boiler was built and fine-tuned by determining the model parameters and by validating the models of each process component against measured process data of the transient test program. The know-how about the boiler dynamics obtained from the model analysis and the developed CFB simulator were utilized in designing the control systems of three new 262 MWe CFB units, which are now under construction. Further, the simulator was applied for the control system development and transient analysis of the supercritical OTU CFB boiler.

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