A unified hydrodynamic model is developed for predictions of flow pattern transitions, pressure gradient, liquid holdup and slug characteristics in gas-liquid pipe flow at different inclination angles from −90 to 90 deg. The model is based on the dynamics of slug flow, which shares transition boundaries with all the other flow patterns. By use of the entire film zone as the control volume, the momentum exchange between the slug body and the film zone is introduced into the momentum equations for slug flow. The equations of slug flow are used not only to calculate the slug characteristics, but also to predict transitions from slug flow to other flow patterns. Significant effort has been made to eliminate discontinuities among the closure relationships through careful selection and generalization. The flow pattern classification is also simplified according to the hydrodynamic characteristics of two-phase flow.

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