Shaped charge jet guns are used in perforation operations to create communication between the formation and the wellbore. The efficiency of this technique is very important for flow performance and production. Over the years, using shaped charge guns has shown that this method caused reduction in production and caused damaged zones in the formation around the perforated tunnel. The damage is a result of the high impact from releasing the bullet into the formation. The bullet produces very fine grain particles that plug or reduce the pore throat size and therefore, causes permeability reduction. This process leaves the perforated tunnel with broken rocks, jet metal and explosive products (mostly carbon).
Laser perforating, a new technology, has the potential to eliminate this damage and actually increase the permeability. Experiments and studies show that lasers improve permeabilities and porosities of the perforated tunnel as well as the adjacent zone. Lasers can be delivered through fiber optics down hole to the target, which eliminates much of the cleaning process and dealing with equipment management.