In redundant manipulation systems the end-effector path does not completely determine the trajectories of all the individual degrees of freedom (dof). The redundancy is used in this paper to minimize energy consumption. A full electromechanical model is used, and the invested energy is calculated explicitly. The optimization includes also displacement limits via penalty functions that are included in the cost function. The solution is based on separating the system and the input into two parts. One that is completely determined by the end-effector path and the other that is driven by it, yet free for optimization. The boundary conditions are resolved in a similar manner, where the physical values are translated to the scaled down system by using a specific projection. Simulation results show that even with limited joint motion, the redundancy can lead to a considerable saving in energy.

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