This study used a coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL) approach to model the air within a football (soccer ball) during two types of impacts. Conventional modelling techniques (and those used in all previous football finite element models known by the author) utilize a uniform pressure method incapable of accounting for spatial pressure variation. Internal pressures and deformations for the CEL and uniform pressure models were within a few percent of each other, indicating good agreement between pressurization techniques. By necessity, the air was defined with different methods in each model and this may have contributed to a discrepancy in maximum internal pressure. Using the CEL model, the pressure wave generated at impact was observed to travel from one side of the ball to the other at the speed of sound. Though the CEL model helped illustrate the impact scenario, there were no clear distinctions that gave it an advantage over the uniform pressure method for simple impact analysis.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.