The European Union recently established an ambitious target by 2020 that consists of increasing the utilization of renewable energy up to 20%, reducing its overall pollutant emissions to at least 20%, and achieving a primary energy saving of 20% compared to reported 1990 levels. This aim could be reached only with strong effort in different sectors, such as residential, commercial, industry, tertiary, transportation, .... In particular in the European Union a remarkable contribution to energy consumption and CO2 emissions is concentrated in residential and commercial sector. The introduction of more efficient technologies in these sectors could help in achieving the results expected by 2020. An option is given by cogeneration, defined as the combined “production” of electric and/or mechanical and thermal energy starting from single energy source, that could be considered one of the first elements to save primary energy, to avoid network losses and to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, our interest will be focused on the microcogeneration (electric power ≤ 15 kW), which represents a valid and interesting application for residential and light commercial users. The energetic, economic and environmental implications due to the use of small scale cogeneration systems were reported, starting by an experimental research activity performed by the authors and other researchers.

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