Through measurement of hysteresis and drift in a piezoelectrically driven multi-axis multi-positioner nanomanipulator, we have quantified error over ranges of three primary operating parameters: gain, duty cycle, and actuation time. A total of sixty-nine curves were plotted, and error and drift measured in a single operating plane. All data shown were collected on the Zyvex L-100 nanomanipulator operating in an open-loop programmed method, in both coarse (12mm range, 2–5 μm precision) and fine mode (100 μm range, 10–50 nm precision). In general, the normalized error was reduced at larger actuation distances and in coarse mode. These results may be used to define optimum operating conditions for piezoelectrically actuated nanomanipulators and micromanipulators whereby the goal is to find a balance between speed and accuracy. The results also are intended to allow for optimal control in closed-loop operation and for task-oriented and pick-and-place operations.

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