The study of motorcycle’s stability is an important task for the passenger’s safety. The range of frequencies involved for the handling stability is lower than 10 Hz. A numerical model was developed to access the stability of a motorcycle vehicle in this frequency range. The stability is analysed using a linearized model around the straight steady state condition. In this condition, the vehicle’s vertical and longitudinal motion are decoupled, hence the model has only four degrees of freedom (steering angle, yaw angle, roll angle and lateral translation), while longitudinal motion is imposed. The stability was studied increasing the longitudinal speed. The input of the model can be either a driver input manoeuvre (roll angle) or a transversal component of road input able to excite the vibration modes. The driver is introduced in the model as a steering torque that allows the vehicle to follow a reference trajectory. To validate the model, experimental tests were done. To excite the vehicle modes, the driver input was not taken into account considering both the danger for the driver and the repeatability of the manoeuvre. Two different vehicle configurations were tested: vehicle 1 is a motorcycle  and vehicle 2 is a scooter. Through the use of the validated model, a sensitivity analysis was done changing structural (for example normal trail, steering angle, mass) and non structural parameters (for example longitudinal speed).
Numerical and Experimental Approaches to Investigate the Stability of a Motorcycle Vehicle
Cheli, F, Bocciolone, M, Pezzola, M, & Leo, E. "Numerical and Experimental Approaches to Investigate the Stability of a Motorcycle Vehicle." Proceedings of the ASME 8th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis. Volume 2: Automotive Systems, Bioengineering and Biomedical Technology, Fluids Engineering, Maintenance Engineering and Non-Destructive Evaluation, and Nanotechnology. Torino, Italy. July 4–7, 2006. pp. 105-114. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/ESDA2006-95311
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