The local blood haemodynamics at curvatures and branches of the arteries system has a crucial role in controlling the localization of blood cells (i.e., leukocytes and platelets) at these sites and at sites of inflammation or vascular injuries respectively. Commonly, the local flow has different shapes of flow separation, recirculation, and non uniform shear stress distribution. To investigate these mechanisms, simulation of cell rolling and adhesion has been performed under variable position shear rate to determine the ranges of shear rates that allow for either adhesion or rolling. The results demonstrate that the cell had the three stages of cell-surface interactions (capture, adhesive rolling and secondary adhesion) when it starts at low shear rate G = 9.06 s−1. Nevertheless, at higher shear rate (i.e., 41.12 and 85.32 s−1) the cell rolls slowly for short time before its rolling velocity gradually increases to reach a maximum value as the shear rate gets higher. On the other hand, cell adhesion is dominant within the distance between the step and the stagnation point; such that the cells in this range rolsl shortly in the direction of shear rate then adheres to the surface.

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