Abstract

One of the core features of the smart grid deemed essential for smooth grid operation is the detection and diagnosis of system failures. For a utility transmission grid system, these failures could manifest in the form of short circuit faults and open circuit faults. Due to the advent of the digital age, the traditional grid has also undergone a massive transition to digital equipment and modern sensors which are capable of generating large volumes of data. The challenge is to preprocess this data such that it can be utilized for the detection of transients and grid failures. This paper presents the incorporation of artificial intelligence techniques such as Support Vector Machine (SVM) and K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) to detect and comprehensively classify the most common fault transients within a reasonable range of accuracy. For gauging the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, a thorough evaluation study is conducted on a modified IEEE-39 bus system. Bus voltage and line current measurements are taken for a range of fault scenarios which result in high-frequency transient signals. These signals are analyzed using continuous wavelet transform (CWT). The measured signals are afterward preprocessed using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) employing Daubechies four (Db4) mother wavelet in order to decompose the high-frequency components of the faulty signals. DWT results in a range of high and low-frequency detail and approximate coefficients, from which a range of statistical features are extracted and used as inputs for training and testing the classification algorithms. The results demonstrate that the trained models can be successfully employed to detect and classify faults on the transmission system with acceptable accuracy.

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