Geological carbon sequestration (GCS) is one of the most promising technologies to address the issue of excessive anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the atmosphere due to fossil fuel combustion for electricity generation. For GCS, the saline aquifer geological carbon sequestration is considered very attractive compared to other options because of their huge sequestration capacity in U.S. and other parts of the world. However, in order to fully exploit their potential, the injection strategies need to be investigated that can address the issues of both the CO2 storage efficiency and safety along with their economic feasibility. Numerical simulations can be used to determine these strategies before the deployment of full scale sequestration in saline aquifers. This paper presents the numerical simulations of CO2 sequestration in three large identified saline aquifers (Mt. Simon, Frio, Utsira) where the sequestration is currently underway or has recently been completed (in case of Frio). The numerical simulations are in acceptable agreement with the seismic data available for plume migration. The results of large scale history-matching simulation in Mt. Simon, Frio, and Utsira formations provide important insights in the uncertainties associated with the numerical modeling of saline aquifer GCS.

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