Thermal energy storage systems designed to use phase change material can benefit from accounting for the reduction in heat transfer that results from fouling on the heat transfer surface or employing a system to minimize the amount of build-up on the heat transfer surface. This paper describes the modeling and design of a modular latent heat thermal energy storage system that can use an internal heat exchanger and a mechanical system to increase heat transfer to and from the phase change material. Theoretical heat transfer modeling of a 100 kWht storage system was performed, candidate phase change materials were tested, and mechanical material removal experiments were conducted. The results of this work led to a design that is in construction and will be operated in the future. The system is predicted to be capable of reaching 93% round trip efficiency while providing 2 hours of discharge at a nearly constant temperature.

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