Synthesis gas (Syngas), a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, can be manufactured from natural gas, coal, petroleum, biomass, and even from organic wastes. It can substitute fossil diesel as an alternative gaseous fuel in compression ignition engines under dual fuel operation route. Experiments were conducted in a single cylinder, constant speed and direct injection diesel engine fuelled with syngas-diesel in dual fuel mode. The engine is designed to develop a power output of 5.2 kW at its rated speed of 1500 rpm under variable loads with inducted syngas fuel having H2 to CO ratio of 1:1 by volume. Diesel fuel as a pilot was injected into the engine in the conventional manner. The diesel engine was run at varying loads of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%. The performance of dual fuel engine is assessed by parameters such as thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, diesel replacement rate, gas flow rate, peak cylinder pressure, exhaust O2 and emissions like NOx, CO and HC. Dual fuel operation showed a decrease in brake thermal efficiency from 16.1% to a maximum of 20.92% at 80% load. The maximum diesel substitution by syngas was found 58.77% at minimum exhaust O2 availability condition of 80% engine load. The NOx level was reduced from 144 ppm to 103 ppm for syngas-diesel mode at the best efficiency point. Due to poor combustion efficiency of dual fuel operation, there were increases in CO and HC emissions throughout the range of engine test loads. The decrease in peak pressure causes the exhaust gas temperature to rise at all loads of dual fuel operation. The present investigation provides some useful indications of using syngas fuel in a diesel engine under dual fuel operation.

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