In this report, a theoretical implementation of vehicle-to-grid power in the New York Metropolitan Area was evaluated with the goal of reducing peaking unit NOx emissions to comply with upcoming emissions limits on high energy demand days. In addition, the net cost of implementing this program was estimated using cost and revenue models based on available electricity rates and approximate battery cost. Finally, the improvement of air quality in some of the most populated areas of the NYMA was evaluated using the AERMOD air quality model from the EPA. By selectively offsetting the peaking units with the highest emissions rates, the average daily reduction was .25 tons at 1% penetration, 1.2 tons at 5% penetration, and 2.13 tons at 10% penetration. The implementation cost ranged from $315,000 to $9.5 million with different electricity rate structures and different penetration scenarios. Reduction of ambient particulate matter concentration was highly variable: the average reduction of all five population centers was negligible at 1% penetration, .83% at 5% penetration, and 1.42% at 10% penetration.
- Advanced Energy Systems Division and Solar Energy Division
The Impacts of Vehicle-to-Grid Technology on Mitigating High-Energy Demand Day Emissions in New York City
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Ferdon, C, Foster, E, Acquaviva, J, Rawat, S, & Zhang, KM. "The Impacts of Vehicle-to-Grid Technology on Mitigating High-Energy Demand Day Emissions in New York City." Proceedings of the ASME 2009 3rd International Conference on Energy Sustainability collocated with the Heat Transfer and InterPACK09 Conferences. ASME 2009 3rd International Conference on Energy Sustainability, Volume 1. San Francisco, California, USA. July 19–23, 2009. pp. 873-880. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/ES2009-90196
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