In this paper, an optimization-oriented supervisory controller based on Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) is established to develop an on-road energy management strategy for hybrid fuel cell vehicles. A method to estimate initial co-state value based on average power is proposed and demonstrated, which makes the offline PMP algorithm feasible for on board implementation. Furthermore, the proposed adaptive PMP (A-PMP) maintains charge-sustaining performance using readily available driving information, such as the total travel time. The A-PMP is evaluated on a high fidelity Ford fuel cell electrified vehicle powertrain with an experimentally validated fuel cell stack model. Comparing to the default baseline energy management method, the A-PMP provides better fuel economy performance. The simulation results show up to 1.1% miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPGe) improvement for Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET), 2.1% for Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), and 7.0% for EPA Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75).

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