Dynamic characteristics of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system can impact fuel economy and load following performance of a fuel cell vehicle, especially if those dynamics are ignored in designing top-level energy management strategy. To quantify the effects of fuel cell system (FCS) dynamics on optimal energy management, dynamic programming (DP) is adopted in this study to derive optimal power split strategies at two levels: Level 1, where the FCS dynamics are ignored, and Level 2, where the FCS dynamics are incorporated. Analysis is performed to quantify the differences of these two resulting strategies to understand the effects of FCS dynamics. While Level 1 DP provides significant computational advantages, the resulting strategy leads to load following errors that need to be mitigated using battery or FCS itself. Our analysis shows that up to 5% fuel economy penalty on New York city cycle (NYCC) and 3% on supplemental federal test procedure (US06) can be resulted by ignoring FCS dynamics, when the dominant dynamics of the FCS has settling time as slow as 8 seconds.
- Dynamic Systems and Control Division
Analysis of Effects of Fuel Cell System Dynamics on Optimal Energy Management
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Wu, K, Kuang, M, Milacic, M, Zhang, X, & Sun, J. "Analysis of Effects of Fuel Cell System Dynamics on Optimal Energy Management." Proceedings of the ASME 2017 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference. Volume 3: Vibration in Mechanical Systems; Modeling and Validation; Dynamic Systems and Control Education; Vibrations and Control of Systems; Modeling and Estimation for Vehicle Safety and Integrity; Modeling and Control of IC Engines and Aftertreatment Systems; Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Their Applications; Dynamics and Control of Renewable Energy Systems; Energy Harvesting; Control of Smart Buildings and Microgrids; Energy Systems. Tysons, Virginia, USA. October 11–13, 2017. V003T43A001. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/DSCC2017-5139
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